潘琦,刘丽东,马静武,马仁锋.卫星遥感监测人类活动所致海洋环境污染研究进展[J].海洋通报,2022,(6):
卫星遥感监测人类活动所致海洋环境污染研究进展
Progress in remote sensing satellite monitoring of marine environmental pollution by human activities
投稿时间:2021-10-18  修订日期:2021-12-31
DOI:10.11840/j.issn.1001-6392.2022.06.011
中文关键词:  海洋环境污染监测  遥感反演技术  遥感数据
英文关键词:marine environmental pollution monitoring  remote sensing inversion technology  remote sensing data
基金项目:浙江省基础公益研究项目(LGF22D010002);国家自然科学基金(41771174);温州市自然资源和规划局委托项目(WZHX2021-08-211)
作者单位E-mail
潘琦 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系暨宁波陆海国土空间利用与治理协同创新中心浙江 宁波 315211 386107202@qq.com 
刘丽东 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系暨宁波陆海国土空间利用与治理协同创新中心浙江 宁波 315211  
马静武 温州市自然资源和规划局浙江 温州325027  
马仁锋 宁波大学东海战略研究院 浙江 宁波315211 marfxf@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      随着沿海地区城市化及工业化快速发展,人类活动对近岸海洋造成了陆源、气源、海源三类源头污染,导致海洋环境质量下降。卫星遥感具有覆盖范围大、快速、准确的监测能力,是全球海洋环境动态监测与评价研究重要手段。从三种海洋环境污染源出发,辨析人类活动造成的不同种类污染及其监测指标,梳理国内外卫星遥感监测相关海洋环境污染研究,检视卫星遥感技术方法在这些海洋环境污染上的应用,发现(1)人类活动造成的海洋环境污染主要是海洋水质污染、海洋垃圾和微塑料、海洋大气污染沉降污染三种类型。(2)水质污染的遥感监测应用有效针对水质环境恶化、灾害的大面积沿海水质环境等常规现场监测方法无法满足的情况,而海洋垃圾与微塑料污染监测方法已经从遥感反演到机器学习,海洋大气污染沉降的遥感监测应用中需要更多大气污染参数以达到精确监测。(3)海洋环境污染卫星遥感监测仍然受到影像数据的分辨率限制,同时受海洋的立体性和流动性影响,因此未来研究应集中于立体化的海洋遥感探测技术,同时利用卫星、航空、船舶、岸基等多源、多时空的监测数据,将光学物理传感器与生物传感器相结合,构建海洋多源监测数据库,为政府及相关商业部门提供即时海洋管理依据,辅助完善海洋文明与海洋空间规划。
英文摘要:
      With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in coastal city areas, human activities have caused pollution to the near-shore ocean in three ways: land-source, air-source, and sea-source, resulting in the degradation of marine environmental quality. With large coverage, fast and accurate monitoring capability, satellite remote sensing is an important tool for global marine environment dynamic monitoring and evaluation research. Focusing on the three ways of marine environmental pollution caused by human activities, we identify different kinds of marine pollution and their monitoring objects, review the application of satellite remote sensing technology methods on these marine environmental pollution, and find that there are mainly three types of marine environmental pollution caused by human activities: marine water quality pollution, marine garbage and microplastics and marine atmospheric pollution. The application of remote sensing monitoring of water quality pollution effectively for the deterioration of water quality environment, disaster of large coastal water quality environment and other conventional field monitoring methods can not meet the situation, and marine litter and microplastic pollution monitoring methods have been involved from remote sensing inversion to machine learning, but domestic related research still needs to go further, in the application of remote sensing monitoring of marine atmospheric pollution deposition, more atmospheric pollution parameters are needed to achieve accurate monitoring. In addition, the satellite remote sensing monitoring of marine environmental pollution is still limited by the resolution of image data, and also affected by the three-dimensionality and mobility of the ocean. Future research should focus on marine remote sensing technology for detecting three-dimensional ocean, while using multi-source and multi-temporal monitoring data from satellites, aviation, ships, and shore-based, combining optical and physical sensors with biosensors is an essential development direction. Finally, a marine multi-source monitoring database needs to be considered to provide the government and relevant commercial sectors with an immediately available basis for marine management, as well as to assist in improving marine spatial planning.
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